In the Netherlands, European environmental directives related to air pollution are implemented in the Environmental Management Act (Wet Milieubeheer in Dutch) and the Activities Decree (Activiteitenbesluit).

The Industrial Emissions Directive which regulates emissions from large industrial sources is implemented in the Activities Decree. This Directive sets rules for large combustion plants, waste incineration plants, VOC solvents and IPPC installations.

Emissions that are not regulated by the general binding rules of the Activities Decree are subject to permits. The emission limits for most substances emitted to air by industrial sources are given by the Netherlands Emisson Guideline for Air.